Plate tectonics originates from two words; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological phrases usually means a sizable slab of hard rock though tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic is usually defined as how the earth’s is designed on relocating the plate. It might also be well-defined like a rigid segment in the Earth's lithosphere that moves individually from those people surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Idea of plate tectonics states the lithosphere of the earth is built up of person plates which are fragmented into quite a few big and little pieces of sound rock. The plates go upcoming to each other in addition to the decreased mantle to produce various forms of plate borders that have formed the Earth's landscape more than quite a few years. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder of your plate tectonic principle; He noticed that the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single huge plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart more than 300 million a long time ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research on the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The theory was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder of your concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics concept could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one from the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the principle of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift of your Earth's continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle of the Earth's mantle that caused the continents to go. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic concept and forces that were behind the drifting of your plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth's rotation led to the drifting away of various plate from the main one. A number of major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding within the three main driving forces for the movement of your Earth's tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic assignment help online plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his principle. The massive convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to decrease mantle. The decreased mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to shift out and away from the ridge thus relocating the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the bordering ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause decrease mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement with the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different varieties of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some of your boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and move away from every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with several evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some of your evidences include: the jig-saw fitting on the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were hard to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving that the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener's ideas forms the basis why the landscape in the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it a lot of kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced the plates transfer linearly and away from every single other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic idea that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart above millions of several years back to form the current continents.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider's record of your modern principle of the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A history of your earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.